WEFOUNDRabbis as Romans: The Rabbinic Movement in Palestine, 100-400 CE

Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century, after the codification of the Talmud . Rabbinic Judaism gained predominance within the Jewish diaspora between the 2nd to 6th centuries, with the development of the oral law and the Talmud to control the interpretation of Jewish scripture (specifically the Masoretic Text ) and to encourage the practice of Judaism in the absence of Temple sacrifice and other practices no longer possible, while waiting for the Third Temple .

Critical scholars reject the claim that sacred texts, including the Hebrew Bible , were dictated by God, and reject the claim that they were divinely inspired. Instead, they see these texts as authored by humans and possibly meaningful in specific historical and cultural contexts. Many of these scholars accept the general principles of the documentary hypothesis , and suggest that the Torah consists of a variety of inconsistent texts edited together in a way that calls attention to divergent accounts. [1] [2] [3]

These scholars have various theories concerning the origins of the Israelites and Israelite religion. Some of these scholars question whether any or all of their ancestors had been slaves in Egypt. Many suggest that during the First Temple period, the people of Israel were henotheists , that is, they believed that each nation had its own god, but that their god was superior to other gods. [4] [5] Some suggest that strict monotheism developed during the Babylonian Exile, perhaps in reaction to Zoroastrian dualism. [6]