WEFOUNDA Study of the Sensory and Sensory-Motor Disturbances Associated With Insanity, From a Biological and Physiological Standpoint (Classic Reprint)


(1) All sense organs contain receptor cells that are specifically sensitive to one class of stimulus energies, usually within a restricted range of intensity. Such selectivity means that each receptor has its own “adequate” or proper or normal stimulus, as, for example, light is the adequate stimulus for vision . However, other energies (“inadequate” stimuli) can also activate the receptor if they are sufficiently intense. Thus, one may “see” pressure when, for example, the thumb is placed on a closed eye and one sees a bright spot ( phosphene ) in the visual field at a position opposite the touched place.

(2) The sensitive mechanism for each modality is often localized in the body at a receiving membrane or surface (such as the retina of the eye ) where transducer neurons (sensory cells) are located. Often the sensory organ incorporates accessory structures to guide the stimulating energy to the receptor cells; thus, the normally transparent cornea and lens within the eye focus light on the retinal sensory neurons. Retinal nerve cells themselves are more or less shielded from nonvisual sources of energy by the surrounding structure of the eye.

From such afferent nerves, still higher-order neurons make increasingly complex connections with anatomically separate pathways of the brainstem and deeper parts of the brain (e.g., the thalamus ) that eventually end in specific receiving areas in the cerebral cortex (the convoluted outer shell of the brain). Different sensory receiving areas are localized in particular regions of the cortex—e.g., occipital lobes in the back of the brain for vision, temporal lobes on the sides for hearing, and parietal lobes toward the top of the brain for tactile function.

You can hear me right now. That is because the speakers are creating vibrations and the density fluctuations in the air. These vibrations traveled to your ear and moved a mechanical system that your brain could read. Signals then traveled to your brain where they were decoded.

If that isn't amazing enough, you can see this. Your screen produces groups of photons that fly through the air at the speed of light. They strike specialized cells in your eyes that are so sensitive they can feel light. They then send a signal to your brain, all the way to the back of it, where it is decoded and figured out. That's pretty flipping amazing.

The sensory system is a group of subsystems used for detecting and understanding the world around you. We just discussed the auditory and the visual system in brief, but there is also smell, taste, balance, proprioception (or the position of your body), and at least half a dozen types of touch sensations.

SM is considered to be outside of cognitive control and is instead an automatic response. The information represented in SM is the "raw data" which provides a snapshot of a person's overall sensory experience. Common features between each sensory modality have been identified; however, as experimental techniques advance, exceptions and additions to these general characteristics will surely evolve. The auditory store, echoic memory, for example, has been shown to have a temporal characteristic in which the timing and tempo of a presented stimulus affects transfer into more stable forms of memory. [4] Four common features have been identified for all forms of SM: [4]

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Overview: Standardized forms completed by caregivers and teachers to assess children’s sensory processing patterns

Scoring Options: Q-global (web-based) or manual scoring

Telepractice: Tips on using this test in your telepractice

(1) All sense organs contain receptor cells that are specifically sensitive to one class of stimulus energies, usually within a restricted range of intensity. Such selectivity means that each receptor has its own “adequate” or proper or normal stimulus, as, for example, light is the adequate stimulus for vision . However, other energies (“inadequate” stimuli) can also activate the receptor if they are sufficiently intense. Thus, one may “see” pressure when, for example, the thumb is placed on a closed eye and one sees a bright spot ( phosphene ) in the visual field at a position opposite the touched place.

(2) The sensitive mechanism for each modality is often localized in the body at a receiving membrane or surface (such as the retina of the eye ) where transducer neurons (sensory cells) are located. Often the sensory organ incorporates accessory structures to guide the stimulating energy to the receptor cells; thus, the normally transparent cornea and lens within the eye focus light on the retinal sensory neurons. Retinal nerve cells themselves are more or less shielded from nonvisual sources of energy by the surrounding structure of the eye.

From such afferent nerves, still higher-order neurons make increasingly complex connections with anatomically separate pathways of the brainstem and deeper parts of the brain (e.g., the thalamus ) that eventually end in specific receiving areas in the cerebral cortex (the convoluted outer shell of the brain). Different sensory receiving areas are localized in particular regions of the cortex—e.g., occipital lobes in the back of the brain for vision, temporal lobes on the sides for hearing, and parietal lobes toward the top of the brain for tactile function.

You can hear me right now. That is because the speakers are creating vibrations and the density fluctuations in the air. These vibrations traveled to your ear and moved a mechanical system that your brain could read. Signals then traveled to your brain where they were decoded.

If that isn't amazing enough, you can see this. Your screen produces groups of photons that fly through the air at the speed of light. They strike specialized cells in your eyes that are so sensitive they can feel light. They then send a signal to your brain, all the way to the back of it, where it is decoded and figured out. That's pretty flipping amazing.

The sensory system is a group of subsystems used for detecting and understanding the world around you. We just discussed the auditory and the visual system in brief, but there is also smell, taste, balance, proprioception (or the position of your body), and at least half a dozen types of touch sensations.

SM is considered to be outside of cognitive control and is instead an automatic response. The information represented in SM is the "raw data" which provides a snapshot of a person's overall sensory experience. Common features between each sensory modality have been identified; however, as experimental techniques advance, exceptions and additions to these general characteristics will surely evolve. The auditory store, echoic memory, for example, has been shown to have a temporal characteristic in which the timing and tempo of a presented stimulus affects transfer into more stable forms of memory. [4] Four common features have been identified for all forms of SM: [4]

(1) All sense organs contain receptor cells that are specifically sensitive to one class of stimulus energies, usually within a restricted range of intensity. Such selectivity means that each receptor has its own “adequate” or proper or normal stimulus, as, for example, light is the adequate stimulus for vision . However, other energies (“inadequate” stimuli) can also activate the receptor if they are sufficiently intense. Thus, one may “see” pressure when, for example, the thumb is placed on a closed eye and one sees a bright spot ( phosphene ) in the visual field at a position opposite the touched place.

(2) The sensitive mechanism for each modality is often localized in the body at a receiving membrane or surface (such as the retina of the eye ) where transducer neurons (sensory cells) are located. Often the sensory organ incorporates accessory structures to guide the stimulating energy to the receptor cells; thus, the normally transparent cornea and lens within the eye focus light on the retinal sensory neurons. Retinal nerve cells themselves are more or less shielded from nonvisual sources of energy by the surrounding structure of the eye.

From such afferent nerves, still higher-order neurons make increasingly complex connections with anatomically separate pathways of the brainstem and deeper parts of the brain (e.g., the thalamus ) that eventually end in specific receiving areas in the cerebral cortex (the convoluted outer shell of the brain). Different sensory receiving areas are localized in particular regions of the cortex—e.g., occipital lobes in the back of the brain for vision, temporal lobes on the sides for hearing, and parietal lobes toward the top of the brain for tactile function.

You can hear me right now. That is because the speakers are creating vibrations and the density fluctuations in the air. These vibrations traveled to your ear and moved a mechanical system that your brain could read. Signals then traveled to your brain where they were decoded.

If that isn't amazing enough, you can see this. Your screen produces groups of photons that fly through the air at the speed of light. They strike specialized cells in your eyes that are so sensitive they can feel light. They then send a signal to your brain, all the way to the back of it, where it is decoded and figured out. That's pretty flipping amazing.

The sensory system is a group of subsystems used for detecting and understanding the world around you. We just discussed the auditory and the visual system in brief, but there is also smell, taste, balance, proprioception (or the position of your body), and at least half a dozen types of touch sensations.

(1) All sense organs contain receptor cells that are specifically sensitive to one class of stimulus energies, usually within a restricted range of intensity. Such selectivity means that each receptor has its own “adequate” or proper or normal stimulus, as, for example, light is the adequate stimulus for vision . However, other energies (“inadequate” stimuli) can also activate the receptor if they are sufficiently intense. Thus, one may “see” pressure when, for example, the thumb is placed on a closed eye and one sees a bright spot ( phosphene ) in the visual field at a position opposite the touched place.

(2) The sensitive mechanism for each modality is often localized in the body at a receiving membrane or surface (such as the retina of the eye ) where transducer neurons (sensory cells) are located. Often the sensory organ incorporates accessory structures to guide the stimulating energy to the receptor cells; thus, the normally transparent cornea and lens within the eye focus light on the retinal sensory neurons. Retinal nerve cells themselves are more or less shielded from nonvisual sources of energy by the surrounding structure of the eye.

From such afferent nerves, still higher-order neurons make increasingly complex connections with anatomically separate pathways of the brainstem and deeper parts of the brain (e.g., the thalamus ) that eventually end in specific receiving areas in the cerebral cortex (the convoluted outer shell of the brain). Different sensory receiving areas are localized in particular regions of the cortex—e.g., occipital lobes in the back of the brain for vision, temporal lobes on the sides for hearing, and parietal lobes toward the top of the brain for tactile function.


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