WEFOUNDThe Ahhiyawa Texts Writings from the Ancient World


The Tawagalawa letter [1] ( CTH 181) was written by a Hittite king (generally accepted as Hattusili III ) to a king of Ahhiyawa around 1250 BC . This letter, of which only the third tablet has been preserved, concerns the activities of an adventurer named Piyama-Radu against the Hittites, and requests his extradition to Hatti under assurances of safe conduct. It is so named because it mentions a brother of the king of Ahhiyawa named Tawagalawa , a name suggested by numerous scholars, to be a Hittite representation of the Greek name Eteocles ( Etewoklewes ). [2] [3]

Originally, it was assumed that the beginning of this letter concerned the activities of Tawagalawa. After Itamar Singer and Suzanne Heinhold-Krahmer stated their preferences for Piyama-Radu in 1983, most scholars relegated Tawagalawa to a minor role in the letter. There are technical difficulties, however, with accepting Piyama-Radu as the man who asked to become the Hittite king's vassal. [4]

Piyama-Radu is also mentioned in the Manapa-Tarhunta letter (c. 1295 BC) and, in the past tense, in the Milawata letter (c. 1240 BC). The Tawagalawa letter further mentions Miletus (as Millawanda ) and its dependent city Atriya, as does the Milawata letter; and its governor Atpa, as does the Manapa-Tarhunta letter (although that letter does not state Atpa's fiefdom).

The Tawagalawa letter [1] ( CTH 181) was written by a Hittite king (generally accepted as Hattusili III ) to a king of Ahhiyawa around 1250 BC . This letter, of which only the third tablet has been preserved, concerns the activities of an adventurer named Piyama-Radu against the Hittites, and requests his extradition to Hatti under assurances of safe conduct. It is so named because it mentions a brother of the king of Ahhiyawa named Tawagalawa , a name suggested by numerous scholars, to be a Hittite representation of the Greek name Eteocles ( Etewoklewes ). [2] [3]

Originally, it was assumed that the beginning of this letter concerned the activities of Tawagalawa. After Itamar Singer and Suzanne Heinhold-Krahmer stated their preferences for Piyama-Radu in 1983, most scholars relegated Tawagalawa to a minor role in the letter. There are technical difficulties, however, with accepting Piyama-Radu as the man who asked to become the Hittite king's vassal. [4]

Piyama-Radu is also mentioned in the Manapa-Tarhunta letter (c. 1295 BC) and, in the past tense, in the Milawata letter (c. 1240 BC). The Tawagalawa letter further mentions Miletus (as Millawanda ) and its dependent city Atriya, as does the Milawata letter; and its governor Atpa, as does the Manapa-Tarhunta letter (although that letter does not state Atpa's fiefdom).

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The Tawagalawa letter [1] ( CTH 181) was written by a Hittite king (generally accepted as Hattusili III ) to a king of Ahhiyawa around 1250 BC . This letter, of which only the third tablet has been preserved, concerns the activities of an adventurer named Piyama-Radu against the Hittites, and requests his extradition to Hatti under assurances of safe conduct. It is so named because it mentions a brother of the king of Ahhiyawa named Tawagalawa , a name suggested by numerous scholars, to be a Hittite representation of the Greek name Eteocles ( Etewoklewes ). [2] [3]

Originally, it was assumed that the beginning of this letter concerned the activities of Tawagalawa. After Itamar Singer and Suzanne Heinhold-Krahmer stated their preferences for Piyama-Radu in 1983, most scholars relegated Tawagalawa to a minor role in the letter. There are technical difficulties, however, with accepting Piyama-Radu as the man who asked to become the Hittite king's vassal. [4]

Piyama-Radu is also mentioned in the Manapa-Tarhunta letter (c. 1295 BC) and, in the past tense, in the Milawata letter (c. 1240 BC). The Tawagalawa letter further mentions Miletus (as Millawanda ) and its dependent city Atriya, as does the Milawata letter; and its governor Atpa, as does the Manapa-Tarhunta letter (although that letter does not state Atpa's fiefdom).

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Setting: Troy (modern Hisarlik , Turkey )
Period: Bronze Age
Traditional dating: c. 1194–1184 BC
Modern dating: c. 1260–1180 BC
Outcome: Greek victory, destruction of Troy

The Homeric "long-haired Achaeans" would have been a part of the Mycenaean civilization that dominated Greece from circa 1600 BC until 1100 BC. Later, by the Archaic and Classical periods, the term "Achaeans" referred to inhabitants of the much smaller region of Achaea . Herodotus identified the Achaeans of the northern Peloponnese as descendants of the earlier, Homeric Achaeans. According to Pausanias , writing in the 2nd century CE, the term "Achaean" was originally given to those Greeks inhabiting the Argolis and Laconia . [5]

Pausanias and Herodotus both recount the legend that the Achaeans were forced from their homelands by the Dorians , during the legendary Dorian invasion of the Peloponnese. They then moved into the region later called Achaea.


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